Glaucoma is an eye disease, responsible for causing damage to the optic nerve of the eye, cause vision loss.
Detailed, Glaucoma is another major defect in the eye by which the optic nerve(cranial nerve) will get damaged which ultimately leads to vision loss and becoming worse with time.
Glaucoma is not a single disease but is a combined result of a group of diseases.
Optic Nerve present in the black part (usually black) i.e in the pupil of our eye, their function  is to transmit visual information(brightness, color, contrast) from the retina to our brain, Let’s Understand Glaucoma with a Diagram

Glaucoma Diagram

Glaucoma in eye



Types of Glaucoma

1. Open-angle Glaucoma.
2. Acute angle-closure glaucoma.

3. Normal-tension Glaucoma.


Open-angle Glaucoma

The angle at which iris and cornea meet in the normal eye become wide or open in case of open-angle Glaucoma, which causes clogging with the time that creates internal pressure on the eye leading to damage of the optic nerve of the eye and due to this there is no visual information transmission between retina and brain which simply means permanent vision loss. This is the most common type of Glaucoma that was seen frequently.

In medical terms, open-angle glaucoma is also known as wide-angle Glaucoma.


Acute angle Glaucoma


This is another type of Glaucoma that was found. It is different from open-angle Glaucoma. In acute angle Glaucoma, the pressure inside the eye suddenly increases or to be precise intraocular pressure(IOP). The main cause of this type is non-proper drainage of eye fluid which maybe occur in hours or in a short span of time than open-angle Glaucoma, which makes it completely different.


There are some other types of Glaucoma which are a combination of open eye Glaucoma and acute angle Glaucoma.


Causes of Glaucoma

1. The cause for primary (open-angle) Glaucoma is still not known to experts. But there are certain conditions that are known to be causing secondary (acute angle) Glaucoma.
2. Old age is one leading factor.

3. It can be caused if a person is suffering from an illness like- diabetes, tumors.

4. Eye injuries or an advanced cataract.

5. Eye surgery.


Symptoms of Glaucoma

1. In the case of an open angle Glaucoma, as it occurs with time gradual vision loss and stress, and feeling of the heavy eye are its symptoms. But there are several signs/symptoms for detecting acute angle Glaucoma.
2. Sudden Blurred vision.
3. Severe eye pain.
4. Unusual Redness in the eye.
5. Headache ( on the same side of affected eye) – As the visual information transmission between the retina and the brain is with the help of the optic nerve also it connects our eye with our brain and in the case of glaucoma this optic nerve is damaged hence we feel a headache which is somewhat different from a normal headache in the affected side of the eye.
6. Nausea(strange feeling of sickness or a feeling of uneasiness).
7. Vomiting.
If anytime these symptoms are there then it may be an acute angle Glaucoma in such cases doesn’t wait for a second and hurry for medical help. 



Prevention of Glaucoma

1. Glaucoma cannot be prevented, but if it is found in an early stage then treatment can help prevent it from getting worse and worse with time.
2. There are several measures that everyone should adopt to reduce the risk of Glaucoma.
3. Regular exercise ( As it improves blood circulation in the body including the eyes).
5. Regularly follow our eye care tips.

Treatment of Glaucoma

Mechanisms For lowering eye pressure:
There are mainly two types of Primary methods that usually used
1. The first method is to decrease the amount of aqueous humor that coming into the eye i.e. reduce the production of aqueous.
2. The second method increases the amount of aqueous that leaving the eye i.e. increases the outflow of aqueous.
Some medications decrease the production of aqueous humor whereas others increase the outflow. Aqueous humor flows out of the eye using two pathways:
(i) one that is sensitive to eye pressure (the trabecular meshwork pathway). 
(ii) one that operates independently of eye pressure (the uveoscleral pathway).
From all of the available choices, a reasonable initial approach would be to choose an eyedrop that will get the eye pressure as low as safely possible in each particular patient. The choice of the initial agent is guided by the patient’s characteristics and associated medical conditions. 
The guiding principle is to avoid known side effects issues while maintaining the convenience of once-a-day administration to maximize compliance. The initial eyedrop could be Timoptic, Xalatan, or Alphagan
Each patient must then be monitored routinely to ensure that IOP is maintained at a level low enough to prevent glaucomatous progression. If additional eye pressure lowering is required then it is best to add an eyedrop with a different mechanism of action than the initial drug. For example, if the initial eye drop used is Xalatan which works by increasing uveoscleral output, then the second eyedrop could be Timoptic or Trusopt which works by decreasing aqueous humor production. We discuss below the key points in considering the drug treatment. We have used brand names because of general familiarity with the names, although several drugs are available in equally effective and cost-effective generic forms.


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